Glossary of Terms &
Listed Alphabetically - "I"
Idiopathic: of unknown cause.
Immunity: The state of being resistant to injury, particularly by poisons, foreign proteins and invading pathogens.
Immunology: The branch of science that deals with the responses of the body when challenged by antigens.
Impaired glucose tolerance: a metabolic state between normal glucose regulation and overt diabetes. Generally, blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but lower than those accepted as diagnostic for diabetes.
Infection: Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, which may be in apparent or characterized by cellular injury.
Insoluble: not dissolvable. With respect to bioavailability, certain substances form insoluble complexes that cannot be dissolved in digestive secretions, and therefore cannot be absorbed by the digestive tract.
Insulin: a peptide hormone secreted by the b-cells of the pancreas required for normal glucose metabolism.
Insulin resistance: diminished responsiveness to insulin.
Intracellular fluid (ICF): the volume of fluid inside cells.
Intron: A region of DNA that does not code for the synthesis of a protein.
In vitro: literally "in glass" referring to a test or research done in the test tube, outside a living organism.
In vivo: "inside a living organism". An in vivo assay evaluates a biological process occurring inside the body.
Ion: an atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons.
Ion channel: a protein, embedded in a cell membrane that serves as a crossing point for the regulated transfer of an ion or a group of ions across the membrane.
Isomers: compounds that have the same numbers and kinds of atoms but that differ in the way the atoms are arranged.