Glossary of Terms & Definitions
Listed Alphabetically - "F"

Fat: See Triglyceride.

F cell: A cell in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerharns) that secretes pancreatic polypeptide.

Familial adenomatous polyposis: a hereditary syndrome characterized by the formation of many polyps in the colon and rectum, some of which ultimately develop into colorectal cancer.

Fatty acid: an organic acid molecule consisting of a chain of carbon molecules and a carboxylic acid (COOH) group. Fatty acids are found in fats, oils, and as components of a number of essential lipids, such as phospholipids and triglycerides. Fatty acids can be burned by the body for energy.

Feeding (hunger) center: A cluster of neurons in the lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus that, when stimulated, brings about feeding.

Femoral neck: a portion of the thighbone (femur). The femoral neck is found near the hip, at the base of the head of femur, which makes up the ball of the hip joint. Fractures of the femoral neck sometimes occur in individuals with osteoporosis.

Fibroblast:  A large, flat cell that secretes most of the matrix (extracellular) material of the areolar and dense connective tissues.

Fibrocystic breast condition (FCC): a benign (noncancerous) condition of the breasts, characterized by lumpiness and discomfort in one one or both breasts.

Fortification: the addition of nutrients to foods to prevent or correct a nutritional deficiency, to balance the total nutrient profile of food, or to restore nutrients lost in processing.

Fracture: a break in a bone or cartilage, often but not always the result of trauma.

Free radical: a very reactive atom or molecule typically possessing a single unpaired electron.

Fructose: a very sweet 6-carbon sugar abundant in plants. Fructose is increasingly common in sweeteners such as high-fructose corn syrup.