PRE Extreme

    PRE Extreme

    PREX
    1.90 pounds
    $69.99
    $43.99
     
     



    • Description
    • Label & Supplement Facts
    • Quality
    • Reviews
    • Research Listings
    • Test Results

    PRE Extreme Description

    ADVANCED CLUSTER DEXTRIN–INFUSED PRE–WORKOUT

    HOW DOES PRE-EXTREME WORK?

    • Builds explosiveness, power, and strength†
    • Includes 15G of Cluster Dextrin®
    • Enhances endurance and increases reps†
    • Accelerates performance and recovery†
    • Supercharges mental focus and acuity†
    • No proprietary blends and full label disclosure.
    • 15G Cluster Dextrin
    • 2.5G Beta-Alanine
    • 1650MG Stimulant Complex

    NutraBio PRE Extreme is the hardcore and ultra-high stim version of our original PRE formula. On top of the time tested and research proven ingredient profile already found in PRE; we added 15,000 mg of Cluster Dextrin and 4 mg of Yohimbe to PRE Extreme in order to rapidly supply working muscles with fuel (glycogen) and take your energy and focus to the next level. This potent combination makes PRE Extreme the most advanced, most intense, and hardest hitting pre-workout on the market today that will allow you to push your limits further than ever before. PRE Extreme is built upon clinically dosed and scientifically backed ingredients proven to maximize workout performance and produce results. Athletes of all levels realize that in order achieve the most effective training session that energy, strength, endurance, and focus are a must. A complete pre-workout supplement should support all of these benefits. The synergistic combination of ingredients found in PRE Extreme help prepare your body physiologically and psychologically by amplifying energy, enhancing the mind-muscle connection, and supporting increases in muscular strength, power, and endurance.  From top to bottom PRE Extreme will help keep you training stronger and longer. Take a deeper look into PRE Extreme and you will find:

    • Clinical doses of 21 research-backed ingredients
    • 15,000 mg of highly branched cyclic dextrin to rapidly fuel muscles with steady state glycogen to enhance performance
    • 350mg combined of caffeine anhydrous and Infinergy Di-Caffeine Malate to boost energy, increase focus, and provide greater training intensity. All without a caffeine crash.
    • 4 mg of Yohimbe HCL to increase adrenaline levels in the body and increase fat burning.
    • 2500mg of Carnosyn Beta-Alanine to increase endurance and help counteract fatigue caused by hydrogen ion accumulation.
    • 2000mg of Pharmapure creatine monohydrate for greater strength, power, and muscle growth. 1000mg of creatine HCL for increased solubility and absorption.
    • 3500mg of L-Leucine to help prevent muscle catabolism and lessen recovery time between sessions.
    • 300mg of Theapure L-Theanine. When combined with caffeine promotes enhanced cognition and attention.
    • 100mcg of Huperzine A to promote a strong mind-muscle connection and supercharge mental focus.
    • 2500mg of betaine anhydrous to support creatine production, increase power and strength output, and protect cells from dehydration.
    • 1000mg of Agmatine sulfate and 750mg Nitrosigine to stimulate nitric oxide pathways leading to greater vasodilation and bigger muscle pumps.
    • 2214mg electrolyte and hydration optimizer that helps maintain water balance in the muscle, facilitates motor neuron function, and increase exercise capacity.
    • 5mg of Bioperine black pepper extract to enhance absorption of the active ingredients in PRE.
    • L-Citrulline (6000mg) – Increases nitric oxide production, reduces fatigue, and improves endurance

    Since day one NutraBio has never been happy maintaining the status quo when it comes to pre-workouts. We have always been the innovators; not the replicators. Although the industry makes it seems like non-proprietary blends, proper dosing, and scientifically backed ingredients are something new; the fact is NutraBio pioneered this trend over 15 years ago.  We focused on creating the best, and we've done just that with PRE Extreme. PRE Extreme has everything you need in one comprehensive, open label, clinically dosed formula and nothing you don't. We pride ourselves on purity. What you see on the label is exactly what you get. PRE Extreme contains no fillers, excipients, proprietary blends, or other potentially unhealthy or unneeded additives.

    At the end of the day, NutraBio isn't just about marketing hype and trying to maximize our profit. It's all about giving athletes what they want to meet their performance needs by giving them access to clean supplements that are innovative and effective. Like you, we want to train hard and see the results of our efforts.  Compare NutraBio PRE Extreme to any other so called "hard core" pre-workout on the market and ask yourself whose formula was created WITHOUT COMPROMISE. We think you'll find that even the most self-proclaimed strongest formulated pre-workouts pale in comparison to PRE Extreme.

    Game over. NutraBio PRE Extreme dominates the pre-workout landscape.

    Still not convinced NutraBio PRE Extreme will take your workout to the next level? Check out an independent review of PRE Extreme from the folks at Price Plow

    Read why PRE Extreme made it into PricePlow's 2016 best pre-workout supplement list.

    The Science Behind NutraBio PRE Extreme

    A closer look at the 21 ingredients and doses used to make NutraBio PRE Extreme the most hardcore pre-workout on the market

    RAPID GLYCOGEN PRE-LOAD SYSTEM (15,000 mg)

    HIGHLY BRANCHED CYCLIC DEXTRIN (AS CLUSTER DEXTRIN) (15,000 MG)

    • Cyclic Dextrin is a clinically studied carbohydrate that is rapidly absorbed and provides fuel (glycogen) to working muscles.
    • Cluster Dextrin is highly soluble and promotes fast gastric emptying times; virtually eliminating any gastric distress often associated with less advanced carbohydrates.
    • Cluster Dextrin maintains a slow release, offering the ideal interaction between carbohydrate breakdown and the normal release of free fatty acids. The result: superior carbohydrate absorption and superior endurance. 
    • In 2013 human clinical trials of Cluster Dextrin, 24 adult male athletes showed that during cycling exercise, the group administered 15 grams of Cluster Dextrin performed better than those who took the same amount of a maltodextrin.
    • Unlike other formulations using Cluster Dextrin that have dextrose or maltodextrin hidden in the "other ingredients," NutraBio uses only pure Cluster Dextrin

    ATHLETIC ENDURANCE & PERFORMANCE COMPLEX (8500 mg)

    L-Citrulline (fermented)(Kyowa Quality) (6000mg)

    • L-Citrulline is an amino acid that plays an important role in nitric oxide metabolism and regulation.
    • It is converted to L-Arginine in the body to support L-Arginine and nitric oxide levels.
    • Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) promotes vascular dilation which improves oxygen and blood circulation throughout the body.
    • L-Citrulline is also expected to relieve muscle fatigue through ammonia elimination.
    • A 2015 study conducted by Bailey et al. found subjects who supplemented with 6000mg L-Citrulline for 7 days were able to improve oxygen uptake and performance during high-intensity exercise.

    BETA ALANINE (AS CARNOSYN) (2500 mg)

    • Beta-alanine (BA) is a version of the amino acid alanine which serves as the precursor to carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) in skeletal muscle.  Supplementing with BA is a highly effective means of increasing muscle carnosine content.  Increased muscle carnosine helps buffer the negative side effects of hydrogen ion accumulation in muscles as exercise intensity increases.
    • Beta-Alanine supplementation has been linked to improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue at higher intensities in both trained and untrained individuals in events lasting 1-4 minutes. 
    • Increases in lean muscle mass and muscular endurance have also been noted with supplementation.
    • A recent meta-analysis confirmed the ergogenic effect of beta-alanine, showing a 2.85% increase in exercise performance compared to placebo when dosed at ~2/grams daily.

    ATP POWER, STRENGTH, & RECOVERY COMPLEX (9000 mg)

    L-LEUCINE (3500 mg)

    • Leucine is one of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAA). By itself it can stimulate muscle protein synthesis; the process responsible for muscle growth and recovery.  This is why it is often referred to as the "main" amino acid.
    • Supplementation with at least 2/grams daily leucine has been shown decrease muscle soreness, lessen recovery time between workouts, and increase lean muscle mass.
    • Howatson et al. (2012) discovered that leucine (combined with isoleucine and valine) administered before muscle damaging resistance exercises reduced indices of muscle damage and accelerated recovery in resistance trained males.
    • NutraBio's leucine is derived from fermented vegetables sources as opposed to animal based sources.

    BETAINE ANHYDROUS (2500 mg)

    • Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline.  Betaine's two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte.  As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses.  As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.
    • Doses of 2500-6000mg betaine daily may increase muscular strength, endurance, and total training volume.
    • Betaine also plays a role in hepatic fat metabolism, promoting muscle protein synthesis, and has been suggested to increase nitric oxide levels.
    • A study conducted by the University of Connecticut found that individuals supplementing with 1.25 grams of betaine twice/daily increased bench press power 20%.

    PHARMAPURE CREATINE MONOHYDRATE (2000 mg) & CREATINE HCL (1000 mg)

    • Creatine is an amino acid (broken down protein) derived compound produced in the body that serves as the primary fuel source (ATP) for short duration, high intensity activities such as sprinting and weight lifting.  Creatine is stored primarily in muscle tissue, and it is used for rephosphorylating ADP into ATP. This means that when our muscles use up our energy stores, creatine helps to replenish those stores in a fairly rapid manner.  Approximately 2 grams of creatine are found in individuals that do not supplement and maintain a diet including animal based proteins.  Those who do supplement can increase their body's internal creatine pool by 10 to 40% depending on diet and total lean muscle mass.
    • As a whole creatine is arguably the most extensively researched and effective supplement available today.  Over 500 studies exist of the ergogenic benefits of creatine supplementation with over 70% of these studies producing significant improvements in performance without any detrimental side effects.
    • Creatine has been proven to increase lean muscle mass, maximal strength, power, and muscular endurance. 
    • Creatine may also help keep you hydrated in extreme outdoor conditions
    • Emerging research suggest creatine may provide cognitive and overall brain health benefits.
    • Creatine HCL is more soluble than creatine monohydrate and in theory should absorb better; requiring a lower dose to achieve the same ergogenic benefits as creatine monohydrate.
    • The ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition) position stand on creatine monohydrate (CM) found that short-term CM supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5–15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5–15%), single-effort sprint performance (1–5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5–15%). Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance.

    ELECTROLYTE & HYDRATION OPTIMIZER (2214 mg)

    TAURINE (1500 mg)

    • Taurine is one of the most important, useful, and safest amino acids.  Taurine is best known for its beneficial effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Early clinical research also suggests that taurine, in combination with caffeine, can produce improvements in mental performance.  When the body engages in extreme physical activity, it no longer will be able to produce the necessary amounts of taurine, therefore supplementation becomes necessary.
    • Taurine is involved in the regulation of core body temperature and may help prevent heat stress and stroke.
    • Taurine is also acts is an osmolyte; assisting the body in maintaining proper water balance.
    • Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.

    CALCIUM POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE CITRATE (AS CALCI-K) (525 mg) & SODIUM PHOSPHATE (189mg)

    • Calcium, potassium, and phosphorus are vital electrolytes needed to maintain bodily water balance and facilitate motor neuron function.
    • The combination of these electrolytes in CALCI-K are highly soluble and readily absorbed by the body.
    • Electrolytes have been shown to prevent muscle cramps and are essential to normal muscular contractions.
    • As we exercise electrolytes are lost through sweat and must be replaced in order to prevent decreases in performance
    • Sims et al. (2007) discovered that pre-exercise ingestion of a high-sodium beverage increased plasma volume before exercise and involved less thermoregulatory and perceived strain during exercise and increased exercise capacity in warm conditions.

    FOCUS, DRIVE, & STIMULATION COMPLEX (1954 mg)

    N-ACETYL-L-TYROSINE (1200 mg)

    • Tyrosine is an essential amino acid whose primary role in the body is as the direct precursor to thyroxine and to the hormones dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
    • Tyrosine may improve both endurance and anaerobic performance via metabolic and/or neurotransmitter upregulation.
    • Tyrosine also improves mental acuity, focus, and mood by increasing levels of catecholamines found in the bloodstream.
    • A study done at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory reported that a dose of L-Tyrosine, when provided to sleep deprived subjects, ameliorated psychomotor performance declines associated with mental fatigue.

    CAFFEINE (250 mg) and INFINERGY (100 mg DI-CAFFEINE MALATE) (350 mg total caffeine)

    • Caffeine, like creatine, it one of the most studied and proven ergogenic (performance enhancing) aids. Although caffeine can affect a wide variety of motor and mental functions it is most commonly used to improve endurance exercise, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels.  Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.
    • Dicaffeine Malate, as the name implies, is the combination of caffeine and malic acid. Adding malic acid to caffeine is thought to calm the digestive effects of caffeine and thought to replenish the energy produced by caffeine (either through increased fat oxidation or ATP production). Malic acid may also weaken the feeling of a caffeine crash and slow tolerance development to caffeine.
    • According to the research higher doses of caffeine, in the 250-450mg range, are needed to provide an ergogenic benefit.
    • The ISSN position stand on caffeine concluded:
      • Caffeine can act to enhance alertness and vigilance during times of exhaustive exercise that requires sustained focus.
      • Caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid for sustained maximal endurance activity, and has also been shown to be very effective for enhancing time trial performance.
      • Caffeine can enhance, not inhibit, glycogen resynthesis during the recovery phase of exercise.
      • Caffeine is beneficial for high-intensity exercise of prolonged duration 

    THEAPURE (L-THEANINE) (300 mg)

    • L-Theanine is an amino acid, that when consumed produces GABA and glutamate, two neurotransmitters that act on the brain to reduce the perception stress.
    • Research suggests that L-Theanine's biggest supplemental role may be in taking the "edge" off of other stimulants.
    • A combination of L-Theanine with caffeine is noted to be synergistic in promoting cognition and attention.
    • Giesbrecht et al. found the combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching, self-reported alertness, and reduced self-reported tiredness.

    N-METHYL TYRAMINE (50 mg)

    • N-Methyl Tyramine Hydrochloride (NMT) is a phenethylamine alkaloid that can trigger beta receptors.  Research suggests that NMT can increase cGMP and cAMP.  This increase means you get large amounts of epinephrine and glucagon naturally…both which play an important role in providing the body with energy.
    • N-Methyl tyramine may also improve brain function via increases in neurotransmitters levels.

    HORDENINE HCL (50 mg)

    • Hordenine is a powerful central nervous stimulant that has been linked to having adrenergic (adrenaline like) effects after consumption.
    • Hordenine's use as stimulant and fat burner are due to its association with tyramine and noradrenaline.
    • Hordenine may also increase peripheral blood flow volume and have a positive inotropic effect (increases strength of contraction) upon the heart.

    YOHIMBE HCL (4 mg)

    • Yohimbe is an alkaloid that is considered a general stimulant that works by increasing adrenaline levels in the body.
    • In some cases Yohimbe increases blood vessel dilation which may enhance energy levels during workouts.
    • Increases in cognitive performance have also been noted in those supplementing with Yohimbe.
    • Yohimbe also may act as a fat burning compound by acting upon the adrenergic receptor system of fat cells, which regulate thermogenesis.
    • A study conducted by Ostojic (2006) found elite male soccer players who supplemented with Yohimbe for 21 days reduced average body fat levels from 9.3% to 7.1%

     HUPERZINE A (100 mcg)

    • Huperizine A is a selective inhibitor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which means it prevents the breakdown and increases the amount of acetylcholine; an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system involved in cognition and muscular contractions. 
    • Multiple studies have shown that supplementation with Huperzine-A can enhance focus, memory and mood.
    • A study conducted by Sun et al. (1999) reported that subjects who supplemented with Huperzine A for 4 weeks improved learning performance and memort compared to a placebo group.

    NITRIC OXIDE PERFORMANCE MATRIX (1750 mg)

    AGMATINE SULFATE (1000 mg)

    • Agmatine Sulfate is a byproduct of Arginine through decarboxylation. It produces other byproducts that are involved in cell growth, structural and metabolic support to the nervous system. 
    • Decarboxylated arginine cannot be broken down in the liver and consequently increases blood flow to working muscles through vasodilation.
    • Agmatine has also been shown to manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.
    • PRE uses a vegan source of agmatine that us derived from fermented plants.

    INOSITOL ARGININE SILICATE (AS NITROSIGINE) (750 mg)

    • Nitrosigine is a bonded complex of arginine and silicon that helps enhance nitric oxide levels to a greater degree compared to arginine alone.
    • Increased nitric oxide levels promote the relaxation of smooth muscle in blood vessels, increasing blood flow to working muscles.
    • In pre-clinical studies nitrosigine was found to be more biologically active than arginine chloride.  The research also showed enhanced blood flow during and after exercise which may help with muscle growth and recovery.

    NUTRIENT ABSORPTION ENHANCER (5 mg)

    PIPER NIGRUM EXTRACT (AS BIOPERINE)

    • BioPerine is a patented extract of the fruit of black pepper that contains standardized amounts of the active ingredient piperine.
    • Numerous clinical studies suggest that when a 5 mg dose of BioPerine is taken with other supplements, it increases the absorption of those supplements by 30 to 2,000 percent.
    • In sum BioPerine significantly enhances the bioavailability of various supplement nutrients through increased absorption
    • At NutraBio, we like to call this "bioavailability insurance" for our highly technical formulations that rely on extremely pure and refined ingredients.

    PRE Extreme FAQs

    What is the best way to take PRE Extreme?

    • Mix one heaping scoop of PRE into 12-14 ounces of water and consume 30-45 minutes prior to training.

    Why does PRE Extreme contain carbohydrates? I heard carbs are bad for you.

    • Believe it or not carbs (glucose/glycogen in the body) are the preferred fuel source for muscles; especially during anaerobic activities such as strength training.  Without them fatigue sets in and workouts end prematurely.  We have found PRE Extreme to be very effective for those individuals who work out first thing in the morning on an empty stomach and in a glycogen depleted state.

    Can I take PRE Extreme with other stimulants (i.e. coffee, fat burners)?

    • We don't recommend taking other stimulants with PRE Extreme due to the efficacious doses of stimulants already found in the product.

    I see PRE Extreme has 350mg of caffeine.  Is that amount safe?

    • Generally speaking, yes. A large review by the European Food Safety Authority concluded that a daily safe dose of 400mg is safe for adults.  We suggest not taking any other stimulants (like coffee) on the days you take PRE.  We also recommend starting with a half scoop to assess your tolerance before moving on to a full scoop.

    I heard creatine can cause kidney problems and cause cramping.  Is that true?

    • Absolutely not.  Creatine is the most studied and effective supplement ever…period.  Over 500 studies have been done on creatine and none have shown to cause any adverse side effects. However, you should expect to see big improvements in strength, power, and endurance after taking creatine. 

    What makes PRE Extreme better than other pre-workouts?

    • A lot of other pre-workouts use ingredients that are ineffective or not properly dosed.  All the ingredient in PRE Extreme are research backed and dosed efficaciously based on the current scientific literature.

    PRE Extreme Supplement Facts Panel, Label Image, and Suggested Use

    Ingredients may change from time to time as we update our products. Please check the label on the bottle.

    Label Image for PRE Extreme
    Supplement Facts Panel for NutraBio PRE Extreme

    Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, mix 1 heaping scoop of PRE into 12-14 ounces of water and consume 30-45 minutes prior to resistance training. Vary the amount of water to achieve your desired flavor level. PRE is extremely powerful, first time users should begin use with 1/2 scoop or less to assess your tolerance. DO NOT EXCEED 1 SCOOP IN ANY 24 HOUR PERIOD OR USE MORE THAN 5 DAYS IN ANY 7 DAY PERIOD.

    WARNING: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. This product is only intended to be consumed by healthy adults 18 years of age or older. Do not use if you are pregnant, breast feeding, sensitive to caffeine, have known medical conditions (including but not limited to kidney, heart or liver disease) or are taking prescription or OTC medication(s). Consult with your health care practitioner before using this product. Do not use under extreme conditions of heat, CARDIOVASCULAR EXERTION or dehydration. CONTAINS CAFFEINE. Do not use with caffeine or stimulant-containing medications, foods or beverages because too much caffeine may cause nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness and occasionally rapid heartbeat. Discontinue use and consult with your health care professional if you experience any adverse reaction to this product. Do not exceed recommended serving.

    If you are a professional, college, or amateur athlete whose given sports conduct in and out of competition random drug screens, this product contains n-methyl tyramine which should not be taken. It is possible this compound could lead to a positive drug test for certain banned substances.

    PRE Extreme Dietary Restriction Information

    PRE Extreme is...
    Please check individual labels. Flavors may vary.
    VegetarianDoes not contain animal or dairy products.
    HypoallergenicXMay contain allergens.
    Gluten FreeDoes not contain gluten. Suitable for individuals on a gluten free diet.
    Filler FreeAbsolutely no fillers.
    Excipient FreeAbsolutely no excipients or chemical additives.
    BSE/TSE FreeFree of Bovine Spongiform Ecephalopathy (BSE) and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE).
    GMPManufactured in the United States in NutraBio's FDA registered and inspected facility to meet FDA 21 CFR Part 111 c-GMP regulations.
    Full Label DisclosureFull label disclosure guaranteed!. Every ingredient in this product is declared on the label. In addition, the exact quantity of each active ingredient is declared on the label. No ingredients are hidden in proprietary blends, so you know exactly what's in the product.


    We guarantee our supplements to be the freshest and purest: Our powders and capsules contain only pure active ingredient with absolutely no additives. Other manufacturers, in an effort to keep costs down, dilute their products with cheap fillers and add chemical excipients to their products to speed up their manufacturing output. These practices cheat you out of the active ingredient. At NutraBio, we've perfected our manufacturing technology so that excipients aren't needed, that means no microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, silica or other fillers, just 100% pure active ingredient. NutraBio supplements are manufactured under the strictest standards producing the highest quality and purest supplements available anywhere. Our raw ingredients undergo state of the art HPLC analysis to insure zero tolerance for impurities and we manufacture our products every 2 weeks.

    Customer Reviews of This Item

    Average of 4.43 out of 5 from 7 raters
    Good taste, disolve very good. Gave me great focus.and didn't upset my stomach
    Written by Hernan from Cutler bay, FL
    I just switched over to Nutrabio. I've used just about every pre-workout. I can say without a doubt this is the best pre I have used. The pump is great and although I have a high caffeine tolerance the energy kick is pretty good. After reading other labels, and understanding what Nutrabio is about, I was really interested in trying their products. They do not disappoint!
    Written by Daniel from McHenry, IL
    This a solid PWO mixes very well in a shaker very little particles after shaking . I only used the minimum amount of water 12 0z with one level scoop. Flavor was on point (watermelon). Energy and focus was excellent also. My opinion is this PWO gives you a good clean feeling of energy and focus with great endurance. I try a lot of PWO and I give this one a 10. Very clear labeling with ingredients and amount of ingredients. No dyes is a plus and is the price is no more than one of those loser energy drinks per serving. You got a new customer. Can't wait to try Intra - Blast.
    Written by Jason from Myrtle Beach, SC
    My go to pre-work - no doubt. If you're thinking about getting a PW supplement look no further. Just be sure not to take at night due to the caffeine.
    Written by Jason from Canoga Park, CA
    I often add carbs to pre-workout supps, because sometimes I have to work out fasted. In these circumstances, pre extreme worked great. Endurance was much better with this pre, especially when training for a long time. Energy and focus - interestingly were a bit less, then with pre. It needed 40-45 minutes to kick in. Pumps were better, then with pre.
    Written by George from New Castle, DE

    PRE Extreme Research

    1. Takii, H., KOMETANI, T., NISHIMURA, T., KURIKI, T., & FUSHIKI, T. (2004). A sports drink based on highly branched cyclic dextrin generates few gastrointestinal disorders in untrained men during bicycle exercise. Food science and technology research, 10(4), 428-431.
    2. Kometani T, Takii H, Shiraki T, Nomura T. Endurance enhancing effect of cyclic cluster dextrin. FOOD Style21. 2003;7:62–65.
    3. Takii, H., Takii, N. Y., Kometani, T., Nishimura, T., Nakae, T., Kuriki, T., & Fushiki, T. (2005). Fluids containing a highly branched cyclic dextrin influence the gastric emptying rate. International journal of sports medicine,26(4), 314-319.
    4. Furuyashiki, T., Tanimoto, H., Yokoyama, Y., Kitaura, Y., Kuriki, T., & Shimomura, Y. (2014). Effects of ingesting highly branched cyclic dextrin during endurance exercise on rating of perceived exertion and blood components associated with energy metabolism. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 78(12), 2117-2119.
    5. Takii, H., Ishihara, K., Kometani, T., Okada, S., & Fushiki, T. (1999). Enhancement of swimming endurance in mice by highly branched cyclic dextrin. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 63(12), 2045-2052.
    6. Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine,36(4), 282-289.
    7. Hickner, R. C., Tanner, C. J., Evans, C. A., Clark, P. D., Haddock, A., Fortune, C., ... & Mccammon, M. (2006). L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 660-666.
    8. Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222.
    9. Sureda, A., Córdova, A., Ferrer, M. D., Pérez, G., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2010). L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 110(2), 341-351.
    10. Hobson, R. M., Saunders, B., Ball, G., Harris, R. C., & Sale, C. (2012). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino acids, 43(1), 25-37.
    11. Stout, J. R., Cramer, J. T., Zoeller, R. F., Torok, D., Costa, P., Hoffman, J. R., ... & O'kroy, J. (2007). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino acids,32(3), 381-386.
    12. Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Stout, J. R. (2009). Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 1-9.
    13. Baguet, A., Bourgois, J., Vanhee, L., Achten, E., & Derave, W. (2010). Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(4), 1096-1101.
    14. Trexler, E. T., Smith-Ryan, A. E., Stout, J. R., Hoffman, J. R., Wilborn, C. D., Sale, C., ... & Campbell, B. (2015). International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 1-14.
    15. Norton, L. E., & Layman, D. K. (2006). Leucine regulates translation initiation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after exercise. The Journal of nutrition, 136(2), 533S-537S.
    16. Shimomura, Y., Inaguma, A., Watanabe, S., Yamamoto, Y., Muramatsu, Y., Bajotto, G., ... & Mawatari, K. (2010). Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness.International journal of sport nutrition, 20(3), 236.
    17. Nicastro, H., Artioli, G. G., dos Santos Costa, A., Solis, M. Y., Da Luz, C. R., Blachier, F., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2011). An overview of the therapeutic effects of leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle under atrophic conditions. Amino Acids, 40(2), 287-300.
    18. Howatson, G., Hoad, M., Goodall, S., Tallent, J., Bell, P. G., & French, D. N. (2012). Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 9(1), 20.
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