PRE Workout

    PRE Workout

    PRE
    1.90 pounds
    $56.99
    $37.99
     
     



    • Description
    • Label & Supplement Facts
    • Quality
    • Reviews
    • Research Listings
    • Test Results

    PRE Workout Description

    EXPLOSIVE PRE–WORKOUT PERFORMANCE ACCELERATOR

    HOW DOES PRE WORK?

    • Builds explosiveness, power, and strength.*
    • Enhances endurance and increases reps.*
    • Accelerates performance and recovery.*
    • Supercharges mental focus and acuity.*
    • No proprietary blends and full label disclosure.
    • 6.5GLeucine &
      Creatine
    • 2.5G Beta-Alanine
       
    • 1650MG Stimulant
      Complex

    NutraBio PRE was formulated with a single goal in mind.  To create the absolutely most effective, thorough, and purest pre-workout in existence…period. We can say without a doubt this goal has been accomplished, making PRE the most powerful pre-workout on the market today. PRE is built upon clinically dosed and scientifically backed ingredients proven to maximize workout performance and produce results. Athletes of all levels realize that in order achieve the most effective training session that energy, strength, endurance, and focus are a must. A complete pre-workout supplement should support all of these benefits. The synergistic combination of ingredients found in PRE help prepare your body physiologically and psychologically by amplifying energy, enhancing the mind-muscle connection, and supporting increases in muscular strength, power, and endurance.  From top to bottom PRE will help keep you training stronger and longer. Take a deeper look into PRE and you will find:

    • Clinical doses of 18 research-backed ingredients
    • 350mg combined of caffeine anhydrous and Infinergy Di-Caffeine Malate to boost energy, enhance focus, and provide greater training intensity. All without a caffeine crash.
    • 2500mg of Carnosyn Beta-Alanine to increase endurance and help counteract fatigue caused by hydrogen ion accumulation.
    • 2000mg of Pharmapure creatine monohydrate for greater strength, power, and muscle growth. 1000mg of creatine HCL for increased solubility and absorption.
    • 3500mg of L-Leucine to help prevent muscle catabolism and lessen recovery time between sessions.
    • 300mg of Theapure L-Theanine. When combined with caffeine promotes enhanced cognition and attention.
    • 100mcg of Huperzine A to promote a strong mind-muscle connection and supercharge mental focus.
    • 2500mg of betaine anhydrous to support creatine production, increase power and strength output, and protect cells from dehydration.
    • 1000mg of Agmatine sulfate and 750mg Nitrosigine to stimulate nitric oxide pathways leading to greater vasodilation and bigger muscle pumps.
    • 2214mg electrolyte and hydration optimizer that helps maintain water balance in the muscle, facilitates motor neuron function, and increase exercise capacity.
    • 5mg of Bioperine black pepper extract to enhance absorption of the active ingredients in PRE.
    • L-Citrulline (6000mg) – Increases nitric oxide production, reduces fatigue, and improves endurance

    Since day one NutraBio has never been happy maintaining the status quo when it comes to pre-workouts. We have always been the innovators; not the replicators. Although the industry makes it seems like non-proprietary blends, proper dosing, and scientifically backed ingredients are something new; the fact is NutraBio pioneered this trend over 15 years ago starting with our original PRE formula.  We focused on creating the best, and we've done just that with our latest version of PRE. PRE has everything you need in one comprehensive, open label, clinically dosed formula and nothing you don't. We pride ourselves on purity. What you see on the label is exactly what you get. PRE contains no fillers, excipients, proprietary blends, or other potentially unhealthy or unneeded additives.

    At the end of the day, NutraBio isn't just about marketing hype and trying to maximize our profit. It's all about giving athletes what they want to meet their performance needs by giving them access to clean supplements that are innovative and effective. Like you, we want to train hard and see the results of our efforts.  Compare NutraBio PRE to any other pre-workout on the market and ask yourself whose formula was created WITHOUT COMPROMISE. We think you'll find that even the most "self-proclaimed" strongest formulated pre-workouts pale in comparison to PRE.
    Game over. NutraBio PRE dominates the pre-workout landscape.

    Still not convinced NutraBio PRE will take your workout to the next level? Check out an independent review of PRE from the folks at Price Plow

    Read why PRE Extreme made it into PricePlow's 2016 best pre-workout supplement list.

    The Science Behind NutraBio PRE

    A closer look at the 18 ingredients and doses used to make NutraBio PRE the premier pre-workout on the market

    ATHLETIC ENDURANCE & PERFORMANCE COMPLEX (8500 mg)

    L-Citrulline (fermented)(Kyowa Quality) (6000mg)

    • L-Citrulline is an amino acid that plays an important role in nitric oxide metabolism and regulation.
    • It is converted to L-Arginine in the body to support L-Arginine and nitric oxide levels.
    • Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) promotes vascular dilation which improves oxygen and blood circulation throughout the body.
    • L-Citrulline is also expected to relieve muscle fatigue through ammonia elimination.
    • A 2015 study conducted by Bailey et al. found subjects who supplemented with 6000mg L-Citrulline for 7 days were able to improve oxygen uptake and performance during high-intensity exercise.

    BETA ALANINE (AS CARNOSYN) (2500 mg)

    • Beta-alanine (BA) is a version of the amino acid alanine which serves as the precursor to carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) in skeletal muscle.  Supplementing with BA is a highly effective means of increasing muscle carnosine content.  Increased muscle carnosine helps buffer the negative side effects of hydrogen ion accumulation in muscles as exercise intensity increases.
    • Beta-Alanine supplementation has been linked to improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue at higher intensities in both trained and untrained individuals in events lasting 1-4 minutes. 
    • Increases in lean muscle mass and muscular endurance have also been noted with supplementation.
    • A recent meta-analysis confirmed the ergogenic effect of beta-alanine, showing a 2.85% increase in exercise performance compared to placebo when dosed at ~2/grams daily.

    ATP POWER, STRENGTH, & RECOVERY COMPLEX (9000 mg)

    L-LEUCINE (3500 mg)

    • Leucine is one of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAA). By itself it can stimulate muscle protein synthesis; the process responsible for muscle growth and recovery.  This is why it is often referred to as the "main" amino acid.
    • Supplementation with at least 2/grams daily leucine has been shown decrease muscle soreness, lessen recovery time between workouts, and increase lean muscle mass.
    • Howatson et al. (2012) discovered that leucine (combined with isoleucine and valine) administered before muscle damaging resistance exercises reduced indices of muscle damage and accelerated recovery in resistance trained males.
    • NutraBio's leucine is derived from fermented vegetables sources as opposed to animal based sources.

    BETAINE ANHYDROUS (2500 mg)

    • Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline.  Betaine's two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte.  As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses.  As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.
    • Doses of 2500-6000mg betaine daily may increase muscular strength, endurance, and total training volume.
    • Betaine also plays a role in hepatic fat metabolism, promoting muscle protein synthesis, and has been suggested to increase nitric oxide levels.
    • A study conducted by the University of Connecticut found that individuals supplementing with 1.25 grams of betaine twice/daily increased bench press power 20%.

    PHARMAPURE CREATINE MONOHYDRATE (2000 mg) & CREATINE HCL (1000 mg)

    • Creatine is an amino acid (broken down protein) derived compound produced in the body that serves as the primary fuel source (ATP) for short duration, high intensity activities such as sprinting and weight lifting.  Creatine is stored primarily in muscle tissue, and it is used for rephosphorylating ADP into ATP. This means that when our muscles use up our energy stores, creatine helps to replenish those stores in a fairly rapid manner.  Approximately 2 grams of creatine are found in individuals that do not supplement and maintain a diet including animal based proteins.  Those who do supplement can increase their body's internal creatine pool by 10 to 40% depending on diet and total lean muscle mass.
    • As a whole creatine is arguably the most extensively researched and effective supplement available today.  Over 500 studies exist of the ergogenic benefits of creatine supplementation with over 70% of these studies producing significant improvements in performance without any detrimental side effects.
    • Creatine has been proven to increase lean muscle mass, maximal strength, power, and muscular endurance. 
    • Creatine may also help keep you hydrated in extreme outdoor conditions
    • Emerging research suggest creatine may provide cognitive and overall brain health benefits.
    • Creatine HCL is more soluble than creatine monohydrate and in theory should absorb better; requiring a lower dose to achieve the same ergogenic benefits as creatine monohydrate.
    • The ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition) position stand on creatine monohydrate (CM) found that short-term CM supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5–15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5–15%), single-effort sprint performance (1–5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5–15%). Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance.

    ELECTROLYTE & HYDRATION OPTIMIZER (2214 mg)

    TAURINE (1500 mg)

    • Taurine is one of the most important, useful, and safest amino acids.  Taurine is best known for its beneficial effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Early clinical research also suggests that taurine, in combination with caffeine, can produce improvements in mental performance.  When the body engages in extreme physical activity, it no longer will be able to produce the necessary amounts of taurine, therefore supplementation becomes necessary.
    • Taurine is involved in the regulation of core body temperature and may help prevent heat stress and stroke.
    • Taurine is also acts is an osmolyte; assisting the body in maintaining proper water balance.
    • Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.

    CALCIUM POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE CITRATE (AS CALCI-K) (525 mg) & SODIUM PHOSPHATE (189mg)

    • Calcium, potassium, and phosphorus are vital electrolytes needed to maintain bodily water balance and facilitate motor neuron function.
    • The combination of these electrolytes in CALCI-K are highly soluble and readily absorbed by the body.
    • Electrolytes have been shown to prevent muscle cramps and are essential to normal muscular contractions.
    • As we exercise electrolytes are lost through sweat and must be replaced in order to prevent decreases in performance
    • Sims et al. (2007) discovered that pre-exercise ingestion of a high-sodium beverage increased plasma volume before exercise and involved less thermoregulatory and perceived strain during exercise and increased exercise capacity in warm conditions.

    FOCUS, DRIVE, & STIMULATION COMPLEX (1950 mg)

    N-ACETYL-L-TYROSINE (1200 mg)

    • Tyrosine is an essential amino acid whose primary role in the body is as the direct precursor to thyroxine and to the hormones dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
    • Tyrosine may improve both endurance and anaerobic performance via metabolic and/or neurotransmitter upregulation.
    • Tyrosine also improves mental acuity, focus, and mood by increasing levels of catecholamines found in the bloodstream.
    • A study done at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory reported that a dose of L-Tyrosine, when provided to sleep deprived subjects, ameliorated psychomotor performance declines associated with mental fatigue.

    CAFFEINE (250 mg) and INFINERGY (100 mg DI-CAFFEINE MALATE) (350 mg total caffeine)

    • Caffeine, like creatine, it one of the most studied and proven ergogenic (performance enhancing) aids. Although caffeine can affect a wide variety of motor and mental functions it is most commonly used to improve endurance exercise, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels.  Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.
    • Dicaffeine Malate, as the name implies, is the combination of caffeine and malic acid. Adding malic acid to caffeine is thought to calm the digestive effects of caffeine and thought to replenish the energy produced by caffeine (either through increased fat oxidation or ATP production). Malic acid may also weaken the feeling of a caffeine crash and slow tolerance development to caffeine.
    • According to the research higher doses of caffeine, in the 250-450mg range, are needed to provide an ergogenic benefit.
    • The ISSN position stand on caffeine concluded:
      • Caffeine can act to enhance alertness and vigilance during times of exhaustive exercise that requires sustained focus.
      • Caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid for sustained maximal endurance activity, and has also been shown to be very effective for enhancing time trial performance.
      • Caffeine can enhance, not inhibit, glycogen resynthesis during the recovery phase of exercise.
      • Caffeine is beneficial for high-intensity exercise of prolonged duration 

    THEAPURE (L-THEANINE) (300 mg)

    • L-Theanine is an amino acid, that when consumed produces GABA and glutamate, two neurotransmitters that act on the brain to reduce the perception stress.
    • Research suggests that L-Theanine's biggest supplemental role may be in taking the "edge" off of other stimulants.
    • A combination of L-Theanine with caffeine is noted to be synergistic in promoting cognition and attention.
    • Giesbrecht et al. found the combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching, self-reported alertness, and reduced self-reported tiredness.

    N-METHYL TYRAMINE (50 mg)

    • N-Methyl Tyramine Hydrochloride (NMT) is a phenethylamine alkaloid that can trigger beta receptors.  Research suggests that NMT can increase cGMP and cAMP.  This increase means you get large amounts of epinephrine and glucagon naturally…both which play an important role in providing the body with energy.
    • N-Methyl tyramine may also improve brain function via increases in neurotransmitters levels.

    HORDENINE HCL (50 mg)

    • Hordenine is a powerful central nervous stimulant that has been linked to having adrenergic (adrenaline like) effects after consumption.
    • Hordenine's use as stimulant and fat burner are due to its association with tyramine and noradrenaline.
    • Hordenine may also increase peripheral blood flow volume and have a positive inotropic effect (increases strength of contraction) upon the heart.

    HUPERZINE A (100 mcg)

    • Huperizine A is a selective inhibitor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which means it prevents the breakdown and increases the amount of acetylcholine; an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system involved in cognition and muscular contractions. 
    • Multiple studies have shown that supplementation with Huperzine-A can enhance focus, memory and mood.
    • A study conducted by Sun et al. (1999) reported that subjects who supplemented with Huperzine A for 4 weeks improved learning performance and memort compared to a placebo group.

    NITRIC OXIDE PERFORMANCE MATRIX (1750 mg)

    AGMATINE SULFATE (1000 mg)

    • Agmatine Sulfate is a byproduct of Arginine through decarboxylation. It produces other byproducts that are involved in cell growth, structural and metabolic support to the nervous system. 
    • Decarboxylated arginine cannot be broken down in the liver and consequently increases blood flow to working muscles through vasodilation.
    • Agmatine has also been shown to manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.
    • PRE uses a vegan source of agmatine that us derived from fermented plants.

    INOSITOL ARGININE SILICATE (AS NITROSIGINE) (750 mg)

    • Nitrosigine is a bonded complex of arginine and silicon that helps enhance nitric oxide levels to a greater degree compared to arginine alone.
    • Increased nitric oxide levels promote the relaxation of smooth muscle in blood vessels, increasing blood flow to working muscles.
    • In pre-clinical studies nitrosigine was found to be more biologically active than arginine chloride.  The research also showed enhanced blood flow during and after exercise which may help with muscle growth and recovery.

    NUTRIENT ABSORPTION ENHANCER (5 mg)

    PIPER NIGRUM EXTRACT (AS BIOPERINE)

    • BioPerine is a patented extract of the fruit of black pepper that contains standardized amounts of the active ingredient piperine.
    • Numerous clinical studies suggest that when a 5 mg dose of BioPerine is taken with other supplements, it increases the absorption of those supplements by 30 to 2,000 percent.
    • In sum BioPerine significantly enhances the bioavailability of various supplement nutrients through increased absorption
    • At NutraBio, we like to call this "bioavailability insurance" for our highly technical formulations that rely on extremely pure and refined ingredients.

    PRE FAQs

    What is the best way to take PRE?

    • Mix one heaping scoop of PRE into 12-14 ounces of water and consume 30-45 minutes prior to training.

    Can I take PRE with other stimulants (i.e. coffee, fat burners)?

    • We don't recommend taking other stimulants with PRE due to the efficacious doses of stimulants found in PRE

    I see PRE has 350mg of caffeine.  Is that amount safe?

    • Generally speaking, yes. A large review by the European Food Safety Authority concluded that a daily safe dose of 400mg is safe for adults.  We suggest not taking any other stimulants (like coffee) on the days you take PRE.  We also recommend starting with a half scoop to assess your tolerance before moving on to a full scoop.

    I heard creatine can cause kidney problems and cause cramping.  Is that true?

    • Absolutely not.  Creatine is the most studied and effective supplement ever…period.  Over 500 studies have been done on creatine and none have shown to cause any adverse side effects. However, you should expect to see big improvements in strength, power, and endurance after taking creatine. 

    What makes PRE better than other pre-workouts?

    • A lot of other pre-workouts use ingredients that are ineffective or not properly dosed.  All the ingredient in PRE are research backed and dosed efficaciously based on the current scientific literature.

    PRE Workout Supplement Facts Panel, Label Image, and Suggested Use

    Ingredients may change from time to time as we update our products. Please check the label on the bottle.

    Label Image for PRE Workout
    Supplement Facts Panel for NutraBio PRE Workout

    Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, mix 1 heaping scoop of PRE into 12-14 ounces of water and consume 30-45 minutes prior to resistance training. Vary the amount of water to achieve your desired flavor level. PRE is extremely powerful, first time users should begin use with 1/2 scoop or less to assess your tolerance. DO NOT EXCEED 1 SCOOP IN ANY 24 HOUR PERIOD OR USE MORE THAN 5 DAYS IN ANY 7 DAY PERIOD.

    WARNING: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. This product is only intended to be consumed by healthy adults 18 years of age or older. Do not use if you are pregnant, breast feeding, sensitive to caffeine, have known medical conditions (including but not limited to kidney, heart or liver disease) or are taking prescription or OTC medication(s). Consult with your health care practitioner before using this product. Do not use under extreme conditions of heat, CARDIOVASCULAR EXERTION or dehydration. CONTAINS CAFFEINE. Do not use with caffeine or stimulant-containing medications, foods or beverages because too much caffeine may cause nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness and occasionally rapid heartbeat. Discontinue use and consult with your health care professional if you experience any adverse reaction to this product. Do not exceed recommended serving.

    PRE Workout Dietary Restriction Information

    PRE Workout is...
    Please check individual labels. Flavors may vary.
    OU KosherCertified Kosher by the Orthodox Union.
    VegetarianDoes not contain animal or dairy products.
    HypoallergenicXMay contain allergens.
    Gluten FreeDoes not contain gluten. Suitable for individuals on a gluten free diet.
    Filler FreeAbsolutely no fillers.
    Excipient FreeAbsolutely no excipients or chemical additives.
    BSE/TSE FreeFree of Bovine Spongiform Ecephalopathy (BSE) and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE).
    GMPManufactured in the United States in NutraBio's FDA registered and inspected facility to meet FDA 21 CFR Part 111 c-GMP regulations.
    Full Label DisclosureFull label disclosure guaranteed!. Every ingredient in this product is declared on the label. In addition, the exact quantity of each active ingredient is declared on the label. No ingredients are hidden in proprietary blends, so you know exactly what's in the product.


    We guarantee our supplements to be the freshest and purest: Our powders and capsules contain only pure active ingredient with absolutely no additives. Other manufacturers, in an effort to keep costs down, dilute their products with cheap fillers and add chemical excipients to their products to speed up their manufacturing output. These practices cheat you out of the active ingredient. At NutraBio, we've perfected our manufacturing technology so that excipients aren't needed, that means no microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, silica or other fillers, just 100% pure active ingredient. NutraBio supplements are manufactured under the strictest standards producing the highest quality and purest supplements available anywhere. Our raw ingredients undergo state of the art HPLC analysis to insure zero tolerance for impurities and we manufacture our products every 2 weeks.

    Customer Reviews of This Item

    Average of 4.79 out of 5 from 14 raters
    Awesome, great focus, energy and strength.
    Written by Michael from Renton, WA
    Perfect preworkout 
    Written by Ryan from San Jose, CA
    I accidentally ordered 3 of these instead of the pre extreme I normally get. All 3 I received were pretty much solid chunks instead of powder. They have the moisture packs in the containers but seem like they were exposed to moisture at some point. After breaking up the powder, it is okay. I do not notice or like it as much as the extreme version.
    Written by Bradley from Hilliard, OH
    I love it.
    Written by Anonymous
    Hey this stuff is great, I would definitely put it in my top three pre-workouts and believe me I have tried many. I only have one issue, and that is with the agmatine. That ingredient is shown to hinder the performance of creatine, if they took this out I wouldn't complain. But overall I very good product that needs to be tried.
    Written by tyler from yorktown, VA

    PRE Research

    1. Roger C. Harris; et al.; "The effect of a supplement containing β-alanine on muscle carnosine synthesis, ventilatory threshold and exercise capacity in Korean cyclists, during 12 weeks combined endurance and weight training"
    2. Kendrick IP, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids. (2008)
    3. Baguet A, Koppo K, Pottier A, Derave W.; "β-alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake responses during high-intensity cycling exercise."  Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108:495–503. doi: 10.1007/s00421-009-1225-0
    4. R. M. Hobson ; et. al.: "Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis"; Amino Acids. 2012 Jul; 43(1): 25–37.
    5. Newsholme P, et al. New insights into amino acid metabolism, beta-cell function and diabetes. Clin Sci (Lond). (2005)
    6. Lee EC, et al. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2010)
    7. holewa, J; Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone.; Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, Coastal Carolina University; 2013
    8. Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue
    9. del Favero S, et al Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance . Amino Acids. (2012)
    10. http://www.creatinemagnapower.com/category-blog/mg-creatine-chelate-research
    11. http://www.jissn.com/content/9/1/41
    12. Hoffmann, E.K., I.H. Lambert, and S.F. Pedersen, Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates. Physiol Rev, 2009. 89(1)
    13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24383513
    14. Demady, D; Agmatine enhances the NADPH oxidase activity of neuronal NO synthase and leads to oxidative inactivation of the enzyme.; Department of Pharmacology, The University of Michigan Medical School; 2001
    15. Kalman, D; A clinical evaluation to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an inositol-stabilized arginine silicate dietary supplement in healthy adult males.; Nutrition & Endocrinology Miami Research Associates; 2014
    16. Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF; Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress . Brain Res Bull. (1994)
    17. Dollins AB, et al; L-tyrosine ameliorates some effects of lower body negative pressure stress . Physiol Behav. (1995)
    18. http://www.creativecompounds.com/exclusive-ingredients.php#infinergy
    19. Zhao, Q; Effects of huperzine A on acetylcholinesterase isoforms in vitro: comparison with tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine and physostigmine.; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences; 2002
    20. Ma, T; Huperzine A promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo.; State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University; 2013
    21. Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine,36(4), 282-289.
    22. Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222.
    23. Sureda, A., Córdova, A., Ferrer, M. D., Pérez, G., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2010). L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 110(2), 341-351.
    24. Hobson, R. M., Saunders, B., Ball, G., Harris, R. C., & Sale, C. (2012). Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino acids, 43(1), 25-37.
    25. Stout, J. R., Cramer, J. T., Zoeller, R. F., Torok, D., Costa, P., Hoffman, J. R., ... & O'kroy, J. (2007). Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino acids,32(3), 381-386.
    26. Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Stout, J. R. (2009). Effects of ß-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6(1), 1-9.
    27. Baguet, A., Bourgois, J., Vanhee, L., Achten, E., & Derave, W. (2010). Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(4), 1096-1101.
    28. Trexler, E. T., Smith-Ryan, A. E., Stout, J. R., Hoffman, J. R., Wilborn, C. D., Sale, C., ... & Campbell, B. (2015). International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 1-14.
    29. Norton, L. E., & Layman, D. K. (2006). Leucine regulates translation initiation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after exercise. The Journal of nutrition, 136(2), 533S-537S.
    30. Shimomura, Y., Inaguma, A., Watanabe, S., Yamamoto, Y., Muramatsu, Y., Bajotto, G., ... & Mawatari, K. (2010). Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness.International journal of sport nutrition, 20(3), 236.
    31. Nicastro, H., Artioli, G. G., dos Santos Costa, A., Solis, M. Y., Da Luz, C. R., Blachier, F., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2011). An overview of the therapeutic effects of leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle under atrophic conditions. Amino Acids, 40(2), 287-300.
    32. Howatson, G., Hoad, M., Goodall, S., Tallent, J., Bell, P. G., & French, D. N. (2012). Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 9(1), 20.
    33. Apicella, J. M., Lee, E. C., Bailey, B. L., Saenz, C., Anderson, J. M., Craig, S. A., ... & Maresh, C. M. (2013). Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise.European journal of applied physiology, 113(3), 793-802.
    34. Trepanowski, J. F., Farney, T. M., Mccarthy, C. G., Schilling, B. K., Craig, S. A., & Bloomer, R. J. (2011). The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3461-3471.
    35. Lee, E. C., Maresh, C. M., Kraemer, W. J., Yamamoto, L. M., Hatfield, D. L., Bailey, B. L., ... & Craig, S. A. (2010). Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr,7(1), 27.
    36. Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Gonzalez, A. M., Beller, N. A., & Craig, S. A. (2011). Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2235-2241.
    37. Cholewa, J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., Wood, R., ... & Paolone, V. (2013). Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc. Sports Nutr, 10(1), 39.
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    39. Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL: The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta physiologica Scandinavica 1995, 153:207-209.
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