small pear shaped pouch adjacent to the liver that secretes bile. The
gallbladder stores bile which is secreted by the liver and releases bile
into the small intestine through the common bile duct.
formed by the precipitation (crystallization) of cholesterol (most common in
the U.S. and Europe) or bilirubin (most common in Asia) in the gallbladder.
Gallstones may be asymptomatic (without symptoms) or they may result in
inflammation and infection of the gallbladder.
Ganglion: Usually, a
group of nerve cell bodies lying outside of the central nervous system
(CNS); also used for one group of nerve cell bodies within the CNS - the
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD):
condition in which stomach contents, including acid, back up (reflux) into
the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophagus. GERD can
lead to scarring of the esophagus, and may increase the risk of cancer of
the esophagus in some patients.
to or affecting the stomach and intestines (small and large bowel).
Biological unit of heredity; a region
of DNA that controls a specific hereditary characteristic, usually
corresponding to a single protein.
use of the information in a gene through transcription and translation
leading to production of a protein.
the genetic information (encoded in DNA) possessed by an organism.
(Main function: Improves alertness and circulation).
Herb that improves cognition, increases memory and learning
in Alzheimer’s patients, alleviates some forms of tinnitus and vertigo, and protects
neurons from oxidative damage. Ginko has been known to ameliorate circulation problems, cerebral
edema, asthma and sexual dysfunction due to
use of antidepressants.
People also use Ginko Biloba to treat or prevent atherosclerosis, impotence,
depression diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and aging – although
there is disagreement about its efficacy for these conditions. CAUTION:
Ginkgo Biloba is a blood thinner and should not be used along with other
blood thinners (i.e. Coumadin, Heparin) unless instructed by a physician.
People on MAO inhibitors (i.e. Nardil, Parnate), St. John’s wort, NSAIDs
(i.e. Aspirin, Motrin) should be cautious when taking Ginkgo Biloba.
production of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors, such as amino acids
(the building blocks of proteins).
6-carbon sugar which plays a major role in the generation of energy for
highly branched polymer (repeating units) of glucose molecules, used to store energy in
muscle and liver cells.
process by which molecules of glucose combine to form a molecule called
breakdown of glycogen into glucose molecules.
Glycolysis: A series
of of chemical reactions in the cytosol of a cell in which a molecule of
glucose is split into two molecules of pyruvic acid with the production of
two molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
enlargement of the thyroid gland. Goiter is one of the earliest and most
visible signs of iodine deficiency. The thyroid enlarges in response to
persistent stimulation by TSH (see Function). In mild iodine deficiency,
this adaptation response may be enough to provide the body with sufficient
thyroid hormone. However, more severe cases of iodine deficiency result in
hypothyroidism. Thyroid enlargement may also be caused by factors other than
iodine deficiency, especially in iodine sufficient countries, such as the
substance that induces goiter formation by interfering with thyroid hormone
production or utilization.
condition characterized by abnormally high blood levels of uric acid (urate).
Urate crystals may form in joints, resulting in inflammation and pain. Urate
crystals may also form in the kidney and urinary tract, resulting in kidney
stones. The tendency to develop elevated blood uric acid levels and gout is
triposphate. A high energy molecule, required for a number of biochemical
reactions, including nucleic acid and protein synthesis (formation).